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Rethink Fusion

Discover How Innovation Could Deliver Unlimited Clean Energy

Unlimited Energy

Harnessing the Sun’s Fuel

Fusion: the power of the sun. Harnessed here on earth, it would transform the world’s energy supply.  Fusion is clean, producing no pollution or greenhouse gas emissions, and fuel is abundant. Fusion is also safe: the process cannot runaway and produces no long-lived radioactive waste.

How Fusion Powers the Sun

Inside the sun's core, pressures are millions of times more than the surface of the earth, and the temperature reaches more than 15 million degrees C. Every second, this pressure and heat convert 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium, releasing a tremendous amount of heat and energy.

The Energy Squeeze is On: World energy consumption is expected to increase by over 50% by 2030 yet world energy reserves for non-renewable sources are running out. Where is the energy going to come from?


Fusion’s Fuel is Everywhere

Fusion energy is fueled by deuterium and tritium, isotopes which can be easily extracted from seawater and derived from lithium, in abundant supply.  There is enough to power the planet for hundreds of millions of years.

The world’s seawater constitutes a 23 trillion-tonne reserve of deuterium, an isotope that is easily extracted. If fusion power plants were to generate all of today’s electricity, this seawater reserve would last over 65 billion years. Additionally, lithium is abundant and widely available in land and sea reserves sufficient enough for over 200 million years of fusion power plant-based electricity production.

Greenhouse gases (GHG), such as CO2, are altering the world's climate. Atmospheric CO2 has climbed by 25% since the 1950s and is approaching levels where scientists predict unavoidable consequences.


Solving the Climate Crisis

Beyond fusion’s ability to generate power without pollution or GHG emissions, it’s also a more land-friendly solution than traditional renewable energy technologies like wind and solar. It requires very little space and can be located close to cities and other sources of demand.


Today, coal-fired electricity generation provides nearly 40% of the world's electricity, produces 25% of all GHGs, and is a major source of air pollution. Natural gas provides another 20% of the world's electricity and generates nearly 20% of global GHGs. To displace them we need generation sources that avoid the pollution, land impacts, and GHG emissions while remaining convenient, economical, and widely available. Fusion could meet this challenge.


Where You Live, Work, and Play

Fusion power is inherently safe. It’s extremely hard to initiate and sustain, and uses very little fuel at any given time. Any breakdown will instantly stop the fusion reaction. Meltdown or catastrophic release of radioactive material is impossible and no long-lived radioactive waste is produced.

Many people don't realize that coal plants disperse the radioactive elements uranium and thorium in their exhaust.

Unlike coal, fusion power plants will not release radioactive materials. Fusion uses - and consumes - only small quantities of tritium, an isotope commonly-used inside glow-in-the-dark “EXIT” signs and as a biological tracer in nuclear medicine. It’s mildly radioactive, has a short 12-year half life, and is only dangerous to humans if ingested.
  • Unlimited Energy
  • Abundant
  • Clean
  • Safe

The Case For General Fusion

Dr. Michel Laberge founded General Fusion with a singular focus to develop economically viable fusion energy. His key insight was realizing that Magnetized Target Fusion, with the aid of modern electronics, materials, and advances in plasma physics, could provide a faster, lower cost, and more practical path to fusion power.

“One can ask why General Fusion might succeed where others failed. The reason I think is that General Fusion is seizing on a unique opportunity when government programs are fully committed to supporting NIF and ITER... General Fusion has chosen the middle ground, harking back to the LINUS project 30 years ago but never tested.”

T. Kenneth Fowler, Former Associate Director, Fusion, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

How it Works

General Fusion’s Magnetized Target Fusion system uses a sphere, filled with molten lead-lithium that is pumped to form a vortex.  On each pulse, magnetically-confined plasma is injected into the vortex. Around the sphere, an array of pistons impact and drive a pressure wave into the centre of the sphere, compressing the plasma to fusion conditions.


General Fusion has developed its technology from the beginning knowing that success requires more than solving science challenges. For General Fusion, success means delivering fusion energy with an approach that has a clear and practical path to commercially-viable and competitive power generation.

“The venture capital-funded effort by General Fusion may be more successful in addressing the needs of a fusion power plant in terms of entry-level of output power, radioactivity issues and development cost.”

Dr. Peter Turchi, Former Chief, Plasma Technology Branch, Naval Research Laboratory



Inherently Practical

General Fusion’s system has three key advantages that allow for rapid and lower cost development, and a fast path to commercialization:

  • A thick liquid metal wall
  • A compressed gas driver
  • No consumables


To make a major impact on the energy landscape, fusion must be both technically viable and economically competitive with existing energy sources. General Fusion's entire approach to fusion technology stems from a commitment to commercial viability and a drive to use economics to displace the low cost, carbon-based incumbents of coal and natural gas.

Thick Liquid Metal WallKey Advantage: Thick Liquid Metal Wall

The thick liquid metal wall surrounding the fusion reaction in General Fusion’s system is a major practical advantage.  The energy from the fusion reaction is absorbed by the liquid metal, shielding the steel sphere and preventing damage.  As it is absorbed, the energy heats the liquid metal and the hot liquid metal can be used to create steam, a convenient way to extract the fusion energy.  The lithium in this same liquid metal is also easily bred into the tritium fuel required for ongoing operation.


Key Advantage: Compressed Gas

All fusion systems must first heat their fuel to extreme temperatures to initiate fusion reactions.  This requires energy, and the cost of most fusion systems is high because of expensive energy drivers.  Inertial confinement fusion, for example, uses massive capacitor banks and lasers to drive their fusion reaction.

General Fusion, on the other hand, uses steam, a compressed gas that is a proven and inexpensive way to store and release a lot of energy.  Using computer-controlled, steam-driven pistons allows General Fusion to power a fusion reaction for less than 1% the cost of other fusion drivers.


plasma_toroid_2Key Advantage: No Consumables

It is often proposed that pulsed rather than steady-state approaches may be more practical for fusion.  Most pulsed systems, such as inertial confinement, use targets made of lead, aluminum, and even gold, which are destroyed on each pulse.  The amount of electricity produced from a single pulse would be worth only a few dollars, so these targets must be very inexpensive for these pulsed systems to be practical. In contrast, the target in General Fusion’s system is a spheromak plasma composed entirely of fusion fuel – there are no consumables.


Where We Are


Proving It Can Be Built

General Fusion is developing full scale subsystems to demonstrate that they can meet their performance targets.  This includes full scale plasma injectors and acoustic drivers, and liquid metal vortex compression tests. Every step is matched with simulation to guide ongoing development work.

Key Subsystem: Plasma InjectorsInjector Simulation

Above and below the central sphere in General Fusion’s system are plasma injectors. These cone-shaped devices form a “spheromak”, a doughnut-shaped plasma, wrapped in magnetic field. The spheromak is then accelerated down the cone, compressing and heating the plasma.

Full scale plasma injectors – the largest in the world – have been constructed to demonstrate formation of the required spheromak plasma.


Key Subsystem: Acoustic Drivers

General Fusion’s novel system to deliver energy to heat the hydrogen fuel to fusion conditions are the acoustic drivers, or pistons.  Powered by steam and controlled by advanced electronics, they drive a heavy piston (the “hammer”) against a second piston (the “anvil”) that is inserted in the side of the sphere.  On impact, the energy from the hammer is transferred quickly through the anvil and into the molten lead-lithium.

Full scale acoustic drivers have been constructed to demonstrate that they can achieve the required impact velocity (energy) and impact timing control.


Key Subsystem: Vortex CompressionVortex Collapse

At the core of General Fusion’s system, molten lead-lithium is pumped in a 3 metre diameter sphere to form a smooth cylindrical vortex. This vortex is used to confine and compress the plasma.

A 1 metre diameter mini-sphere with 14 full-scale acoustic drivers has been constructed to test liquid metal vortex formation and compression.


Where We're Going

Full Scale, Net Gain Prototype

In the next phase of development, General Fusion will be constructing a full scale prototype system.  The prototype will be designed for single pulse testing, demonstrating full net energy gain on each pulse, a world first.

  • Case for Fusion
  • How it Works
  • Advantages
  • Where We Are
  • Where We’re Going
Nuclear fusion is the mechanism that fuels the sun, the solar system’s largest fusion energy source. It involves fusing small atoms together, and occurs when two light nuclei collide to form a heavier nucleus. The most practical fusion reaction uses isotopes of hydrogen named “deuterium” and “tritium”. Deuterium can be extracted from seawater and tritium can be derived from lithium resulting in a ubiquitous source of fuel and a nearly endless supply of clean energy.

Fusion Science

The Sun’s Power on Earth

Fusion occurs when atoms (normally hydrogen isotopes) are heated to very high temperatures, allowing them to collide and fuse.  In the sun, gravity creates those conditions but here on earth, the challenge for fusion science is to create the conditions for fusion using magnetic fields and inertia.

Fusion energy technology is being pursued across a very wide range of conditions. At very low density, Magnetic Confinement Fusion attempts to confine plasma at fusion temperatures for long periods of time (minutes) using very strong magnetic fields. At one trillion times higher density, Inertial Confinement Fusion attempts to compress fuel to fusion conditions for a nanosecond. In the middle, Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) uses some magnetic confinement and some compression to achieve fusion conditions for a few microseconds, at intermediate densities.

Magnetized Target Fusion


General Fusion’s Approach

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a hybrid between magnetic fusion and inertial confinement fusion.  In MTF, a compact toroid, or donut-shaped magnetized plasma, is compressed mechanically by an imploding conductive shell, heating the plasma to fusion conditions.

MTF's advantages stem from its hybrid nature. MTF uses some magnetic field to confine the plasma, allowing for slower compression using mechanical systems. Magnetic fields in MTF are short-lived, avoiding complex plasma sustainment technologies.

By comparison, Inertial Confinement's fast compression requires high power lasers. Magnetic Confinement's long plasma life requires massive superconducting magnets, particle beams, and exotic materials.

LINUS – The Original MTF Power PlantLINUS

LINUS was the first full power plant concept based on Magnetized Target Fusion.  Developed in the 1970s at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory near Washington, DC, LINUS included many of the features General Fusion has leveraged in its own approach, such as thick liquid metal walls and a compressed gas driver.  Due to the plasma and electronics technology available at the time, the LINUS design proved impossible to build.


Commercialization Challenges: Magnetic Confinement Fusion systems will be very large and use expensive, exotic technologies for plasma confinement. New materials need to be invented to withstand the harsh plasma environment, and heat extraction and tritium breeding will be very difficult.

In contrast to tokamaks, General Fusion’s Magnetized Target Fusion power plants are expected to be 10 times smaller, and use a thick liquid metal “blanket” instead of solid walls around the fusion reaction. Since a continuously circulating liquid metal like this cannot be destroyed, can breed tritium, and can absorb the heat from the fusion reaction, it provides an elegant and practical solution to the challenges facing Magnetic Confinement Fusion.

Magnetic Confinement Fusion


All Confinement, Low Density

Magnetic fusion works on the principle that plasmas can be confined by magnetic fields. Magnetic fusion machines, called “tokamaks”, trap plasma in a toroidal cavity surrounded by strong external electromagnets. Invented in the 1950s, tokamaks are the most-researched fusion systems.

T-1: The Original Tokamak

The most successful Magnetic Confinement Fusion approach, called a “tokamak”, was invented by Soviet physicists in the 1950s at the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow.  The T-1 tokamak, pictured here, was the first built.  Later versions improved on the design and in 1968, the T-3 tokamak achieved an important breakthrough in confinement quality which spurred major tokamak construction and research programs around the world.


Joint European Torus (JET)

The Joint European Torus (or “JET”) is located at the Culham Center for Fusion Technology in the UK.  In 1997, JET achieved a fusion power record, producing 16 MW or 70% of the energy required to heat the plasma.  This marked a 100,000 fold improvement in fusion power from the results achieved by the Soviet T-3 tokamak in 1968 and illlustrated the progress made by fusion researchers in a few decades.



The world’s largest tokamak will be ITER, currently under construction by a consortium of USA, Russia, Japan, China, India, South Korea, and the European Union.
The ITER project was started in 1988. Construction is now underway in France with operation expected to begin in 2023 and net energy around 2030.  A prototype power plant, called DEMO, is planned following the ITER project.


Commercialization Challenges: Inertial Confinement Fusion systems will need major advances in laser efficiency, a 1,000-fold reduction in target cost, optics that don't degrade, and new materials to withstand the harsh environment facing the plasma.

Similar to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), General Fusion's system is a pulsed approach. The key difference is that General Fusion's compressed gas driver uses current industrial technologies - at much lower cost. Where ICF consumes expensive solid targets, often made of gold, General Fusion's system uses plasma targets made entirely of fusion fuel meaning there are no consumables. And, by using a liquid metal, General Fusion avoids ICF's materials challenges.

Inertial Confinement Fusion


All Compression, High Density

Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) uses intense lasers fired onto a small (approximately 1 cm) spherical shell containing a deuterium-tritium ice mixture, exploding the outside of the shell. The rest of the shell accelerates inwards, compressing and heating the fuel for a nanosecond burst of fusion.

National Ignition Facility (NIF)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the USA is the world’s largest Inertial Confinement Fusion system, and the world’s most powerful laser.  NIF is designed to primarily to support weapons-related research, but is also attempting to reach ignition using ICF for the first time.

  • Fusion Science
  • Magnetized Target Fusion
  • Magnetic Confinement
  • Inertial Confinement


Rethinking Fusion

General Fusion was founded in 2002 by Dr. Michel Laberge with a goal to transform the world’s energy supply by developing the fastest, most practical, and lowest cost path to commercial fusion power.

In 2006, Dr. Laberge completed proof-of-principle experiments, and with the support of leading venture capital investors, General Fusion began building a team that today is recognized as the global leader in Magnetized Target Fusion.


The Right Team for the Challenge

General Fusion has built a world-class Magnetized Target Fusion research and development team consisting of over 50 research and development professionals who have demonstrated the ability to quickly and cost-effectively design, simulate, prototype, and test advanced fusion systems.  General Fusion’s science team includes PhD scientists from leading fusion research institutions L’École Polytechnique in France, the Culham Centre for Fusion Technology in the UK, the Joint Institute for High Temperatures at the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Kyushu University in Japan.

Additionally, General Fusion has supplemented its research group with experts in regulatory affairs, project management, government relations, intellectual property, finance, and strategic business development.

Management Team

Bruce Colwill, CFO/Interim CEO
Pre-commercial technology company finance veteran with extensive fund raising experience

Dr. Michel Laberge, Founder and Chief Scientist
Plasma physics expert with widespread practical experience

Michael Delage, VP Technology and Corporate Strategy
Successful energy technology entrepreneur and strategic partnering professional

Mike Donaldson, VP Operations
Experienced product development professional and leader in multidisciplinary technical teams

George Rubin, VP Business Development
Clean energy sector veteran with strong scientific background and an in-depth knowledge of financial markets and strategies


General Fusion is supported by a global syndicate of leading energy venture capital funds, industry leaders, and technology pioneers, including:

Chrysalix Energy Venture Capital
Bezos Expeditions
Khazanah Nasional Berhad
Braemar Energy Ventures
Cenovus Energy
Entrepreneurs Fund
Business Development Bank of Canada
SET Ventures
Sustainable Development Technology Canada


Due to the quality and capabilities of its team, General Fusion has emerged as the global leader in Magnetized Target Fusion, driven by the goal to deliver the world’s first commercially-viable fusion power system and clean energy everywhere, forever.  If you would like to be part of this bold challenge, we are now accepting applications for the following positions:

Plasma Physicist

Director, Plasma Simulation

Please submit your application or general inquiries to opportunities@generalfusion.com

  • Company
  • Team
  • Management Team
  • Board of Directors
  • Advisory Council
  • Investors
  • Careers

Edward I. Moses

Dr. Edward Moses is a former President of the Giant Magellan Telescope Organization, and past Principal Associate Director for the National Ignition Facility & Photon Science Directorate where he led the California-based NIF, the largest experimental science facility in the US and the world’s most energetic laser. He has over 18 years of experience developing Department of Energy laser systems and 30 years of experience developing and managing complex laser systems and high-technology projects.

As Associate Director for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Program and as Principal Associate Director for the NIF & Photon Science Directorate, he was responsible for completing construction and bringing into full operation the world’s largest optical instrument for achieving ignition in the laboratory and for studying inertial fusion energy.

Dr. Moses joined Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in 1980, becoming program leader for isotope separation and material processing and deputy AD for Lasers. From 1990 to 1995, he was a founding partner of Advanced Technology Applications, Inc., and he returned to LLNL in 1995 as assistant AD for program development, physics and space technology.

Dr. Moses received his bachelor’s degree and doctorate from Cornell University in New York. He has won numerous awards, including the 2003 NNSA Award of Excellence for Significant Contribution to Stockpile Stewardship, the 2004 DOE Award of Excellence for the first joint LLNL/Los Alamos National Laboratory experiments on NIF, and the D.S. Rozhdestvensky Medal for Outstanding Contributions to Lasers and Optical Sciences. He holds seven patents in laser technology and computational physics.

Osamu Motojima

Osamu Motojima is Director General Emeritus of the ITER Organization and president of the Future Energy Research Association. He is an advisor to the Chairman of Chubu University, Member of the Board of Pacific Industrial co., Ltd and Foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Science.

Dr. Motojima was most recently the Director General of the ITER Organization, where he oversaw commencement of construction on the ITER project and coordinated the 35 nation collaboration. He was previously Director General of the National Institute of Fusion Science (NIFS), and directed the Large Helical Device Project, which was developed to enable fusion-grade confinement research in a steady-state machine.

Dr. Motojima earned his Ph.D in Electrical Engineering from Kyoto University and has published 450 technical papers and authored four books.

Michael Delage, Vice President, Technology and Corporate Strategy

Michael is an engineer and experienced technology entrepreneur with a career spent developing complex technologies and bringing them to market. His expertise lies in technology strategy and corporate strategy, systems engineering, product management, and partnerships and joint development programs.

Prior to joining General Fusion in 2010, Michael co-founded and spent seven years building Energate Inc. into one of the leading residential demand response technology companies in North America. Under Michael’s leadership, Energate secured partnerships with industry champions and pioneered many of the technologies and standards to integrate residential energy management into the smart grid.

Earlier in his career, Michael worked in the aerospace industry as a systems and design engineer on technologies from microsatellites to the robotic systems on the International Space Station, where hardware he designed continues to operate today.

Michael holds a B.Sc. in Engineering Physics and an M.B.A. for Science and Technology from Queen’s University.


Bruce Colwill, CFO & Interim CEO

Bruce Colwill is a strategic finance professional with over 25 years of experience in start-up and entrepreneurial companies. As the CFO of multiple public and private companies, Bruce has been responsible for fundraising in excess of US$400 million including private and public financing, debt and other structured financings.

Beginning his career with KPMG, Bruce’s expertise encompasses the biotech and pharmaceutical industry, the mining and energy sectors and financial services. He brings experience in IPOs, managing growth, mergers & acquisitions and general corporate management to General Fusion.  He holds a BBA from Simon Fraser University and is a Canadian Professional Accountant (CPA,CA).


George Rubin, VP Business Development

George Rubin, VP Business Development

George Rubin combines a strong scientific background with an in-depth knowledge of financial markets and strategies. A graduate of Moscow State University with a Masters Degree in Quantum Radio Physics, and a British Columbia Institute of Technology graduate with a Diploma in Financial Management and a Bachelor Degree in Accounting, George brings to the team 5 years of corporate finance experience and almost a decade in the cleantech industry.

As a co-founder, Vice President and subsequently President of Day4 Energy Inc., George was instrumental to developing Day4’s strategic vision and was directly responsible for execution of the corporate development plan. This included growing company operations from a research and development start-up in 2003 with a total staff of 5, through to a commercial operation with 265 employees, annual sales of more than $165 million CDN and an annualized sales run rate of over $230 million CDN in 2010.

Following his time at Day4, George founded Pacific Surf Partners and served as its Managing Director. In 2016 he joined General Fusion to develop and coordinate relationships in the business and research communities.


Shahril Ibrahim

Shahril Ibrahim

Shahril Ibrahim serves as Director of Khazanah Americas Incorporated, the North American office of Khazanah. In this role, Shahril leverages his experience and leadership in innovation, content & media, and new business development to evaluate investment opportunities in North America, particularly in the innovation and technology sectors.

As a resident of California for over 20 years, Shahril’s interest in new media spans from visualization at NASA Ames, to smart school development with the Annenberg Foundation, to research and development at BOSS Films.  During the last ten years, Shahril has shifted his interests towards developing new media competencies in Malaysia.  More notably, Shahril conceptualized the media cluster for Iskandar, and orchestrated the development of Rhythm & Hues Malaysia.

Shahril graduated from Harvey Mudd College, with dual degrees in Economics and Systems Engineering. He holds a Masters in Computer Science from the University of Southern California.

Mike Donaldson, Vice President, Operations

Mike Donaldson

Mike Donaldson is a systems engineer with 18 years of experience in the development of novel and disruptive technologies.  He has broad experience in product development, production engineering and engineering management. He has lead multidisciplinary teams in high risk and complicated technical projects with a focus on risk reduction through rapid prototyping and physical testing.

Prior to joining General Fusion in 2009, Mr. Donaldson had been with Kodak (Creo) since 1999 contributing in production engineering and product development roles.

Mike has a B.Sc. in Engineering Physics from Queen’s University and a M.Sc. in Engineering Physics from the University of British Columbia.

Dr. T. Kenneth Fowler

KFowlerProf. T. Kenneth Fowler received his PhD from the University of Wisconsin in Physics in 1957. He joined Oak Ridge National Laboratory, where he was a leader of the Plasma Theory Group until 1965. He then moved to General Atomics, where he was appointed head of the Plasma Physics Division in 1967. He transferred to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where he served from 1970 to 1987 as Associate Director for Magnetic Fusion Energy. He became chairman of the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley in 1988, and he served in that capacity until his retirement in 1994.

He is the author of numerous publications including the book The Fusion Quest (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). Prof. Fowler has numerous memberships and awards including the Fusion Power Associates Leadership Award for 1983 and election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1987. He has been a Fellow of the American Physical Society since 1970. His research interests include plasma physics applications to magnetic fusion energy, theoretical plasma physics, weapons effects at high altitudes, nuclear reactions theory, and scattering theory.

For many years Dr. Fowler carried on research in plasma physics aimed toward the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion. Through his fundamental theoretical investigations and perceptive analyses of experiments, he created new fusion concepts that are contributing significantly to the search for solutions to controlled thermonuclear fusion power. His leadership and direction have stimulated other technical people in their work. He has been recognized as one of the leading people in the world in this field and directed one of the largest efforts of study of fusion power in the United States. Through his leadership, the mirror fusion laboratory at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory became the preeminent mirror program in the world.

He is author or coauthor of over 100 technical publications and has served as a member of several national scientific committees such as the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Standing Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission. He has been an active leader in the work of the American Physical Society.

Donald L. Runkle

DRunkleDonald L. Runkle is a recognized business leader and product/process innovator. He has led divisional profit turnarounds, international acquisitions and divestitures, created new business channels, co-led a large IPO and has led the development of a disruptive product technology. He has led countless product innovations and built engineering teams with award winning technical strength.

Mr. Runkle is Executive Chairman of EcoMotors International (formerly CEO for four years), a disruptive engine company with Khosla Ventures, Braemar Energy Ventures and Bill Gates as primary investors. He is an operating executive for Tennenbaum Capital Partners advising on investments and operational turnarounds, a director of Lear Corporation, Transonic Corporation, WinCup Corporation, and the Lean Enterprise Institute. As well as General Fusion, he is an advisor to TULA Technology; both are disruptive venture capital backed companies. He has consulted on topics including technology and business strategy, electronics, fuel cells, energy development and storage, electric vehicles, and lean implementation.

Early in his career he joined General Motors, where he held a variety of assignments, Vice President of GM’s Advanced Engineering Staff and GM’s North American Engineering Center where he was GM’s top engineering executive.

Mr. Runkle led turnarounds as President of Delphi Steering in 1993 and Delphi Energy & Engine Management Systems in 1996, co-led the IPO/spin-off of Delphi from General Motors in 1998/99, and acquired Lucas Diesel in 2000 consolidating it with the Energy and Chassis Division. During his tenure at Delphi, Runkle led many international acquisitions. He became Vice-Chairman of Delphi in 2003 through June, 2005.

Mr. Runkle has bachelor and master degrees from the University of Michigan in mechanical engineering and an MBA as a Sloan Fellow from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mr. Runkle is a member of SAE and the Tau Beta Pi and Pi Tau Sigma Engineering Honorary Societies; a life member of the Shingo Academy, recognizing distinguished manufacturing excellence; and recipient of the Wu Manufacturing Leadership Award, as role model for visionary and strategic thinking leaders, and the ASM Medal for the Advancement of Research. Mr. Runkle co-founded the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), with the U.S. Department of Energy.

Ram Narula

RNarulaRam Narula retired from Bechtel Power Corporation in April, 2011 as Principal Vice President and Chief Technology Officer. He has nearly 52 years of engineering experience in fossil, nuclear and renewable power generation projects with the last 38 years being with Bechtel.

He was Bechtel Power Corporation’s Chief Technology Officer for 10 years, preceded by 9 years as a project engineering manager for Bechtel’s Project Development Group. The other 30 years in various positions includes Chief Mechanical Engineer at Bechtel, Sr. Engineer with Sargent and Lundy Engineers, Chicago and Sr. Engineer with BHEL, India.

Because of his stature in the industry and extensive engineering background, he was selected as a Bechtel Fellow (a rare distinction) in 1996 for his expertise in fossil power technology. He was elected a principal vice president of Bechtel Power Corporation in 1998 and an ASME Fellow in 2000. In 2005, he was selected as Chairman of Bechtel Fellows.

Dr. William W. Lattin

BLattinDr. William W. Lattin has had a successful career in the semiconductor industry, spanning over 40 years of service. Since 2002, Dr. Lattin has served as the President of Lattin Enterprises, a firm that invests in development-stage technology companies. Dr. Lattin’s career has spanned both hardware and software companies in the electronics industry.

From October 1994 until October 1999, Dr. Lattin was the Executive Vice President of Synopsys, Inc., a leading supplier of electronic design automation software to the global semiconductor industry. Prior to joining Synopsys, from 1986 to 1994, Dr. Lattin was President and Chief Executive Officer of Logic Automation, and led that company’s growth and eventual sale to Synopsys in 1994. Dr. Lattin was Vice President of the Systems Group at Intel Corporation from 1975 to 1986.

Dr. Lattin’s experience at Intel included responsibilities for microprocessor development and management of Intel’s board computer division, which developed embedded systems for many different applications which includes machine control. Dr. Lattin sits on the board of directors of several privately held companies. Dr. Lattin holds a Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Arizona State University and M.S.E.E. and B.S.E.E. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley. As well, Dr. Lattin holds seven patents, is a founding member of VHDL International, a semiconductor industry development organization, and is a senior member of IEEE.

Mark Edward Kelly

MKellyA naval aviator, Kelly flew combat missions during the Gulf War. He was selected to become a NASA Space Shuttle pilot in 1996 and flew his first mission in 2001 as pilot of STS-108. He piloted STS-121 in 2006 and commanded STS-124 in 2008 and STS-134 in 2011. STS-134 was his final mission and the final mission of Space Shuttle Endeavour.

His wife was the target of an attempted assassination in Tucson, Arizona, on January 8, 2011. After the shooting, in which six people were killed, both Kelly and Giffords were thrust into the media spotlight. His wife’s shooting led to a broad national conversation ranging from the duties of a husband to what is acceptable civil discourse. The couple wrote a book about their lives and their experiences, discussing the shooting and Giffords’s initial recovery.

Kelly’s identical twin brother, Scott Kelly, is also an astronaut and served as commander of International Space Station(ISS) Expedition 26. The Kelly brothers are the only twins and only siblings to have both traveled in space.

Dr. Thomas R. Jarboe

TJarboeProfessor Jarboe has been a leader of the development of the spheromak confinement device since the early 1980s. He led a team at Los Alamos National Laboratory that was the first to produce a stable symmetric spheromak and an isolated spheromak; first to produce spheromak that self-heated to greater than 100eV; first to sustain a spheromak by helicity injection; and the first to observe self-heating of a spheromak to the pressure-limit. At the University of Washington he leads a team that is the first to efficiently sustain a kink-stable, axially symmetric, high-pressure spheromak with imposed dynamo current drive; and the first to show that a steady-state spheromak fusion reactor can render coal-fired power generation obsolete from economics alone.

Professor Jarboe received his undergraduate degree in Engineering Physics from the University of Illinois in 1967. He then pursued a doctoral degree at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1974, he received his PhD in plasma physics. He then joined the controlled fusion research division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He served as group leader from 1983 to 1989 where he studied a very attractive magnetic fusion confinement device called the spheromak. He spent one year beginning in 1985 doing the controlled fusion research at Culham Laboratory in England.

He came to the University of Washington in 1989 as Professor of Nuclear Engineering and joined the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1992. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society.

Professor Jarboe’s current research interests lie in plasma physics and controlled fusion. He is presently pursuing three plasma research interests. First, he is Director of the Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center). The goal of the center is to develop computational predictability for improved magnetic confinement configurations with controlled fusion applications. The PSI-Center plays an important role in making fusion energy practical and in advancing plasma science in general. Second, he leads the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) program on Campus. This method allows steady state operation. Developing an efficient current drive method for a spheromak that is compatible with good confinement would be a major advance for practical fusion energy.

Finally, Professor Jarboe leads collaboration with the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, where coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive, developed at the UW, is being applied to the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). CHI is to be used on this major US fusion facility for plasma startup and current profile control.

Mike Harcourt

MHarcourtAs former premier of British Columbia, Mayor of Vancouver and City Councillor, Mike Harcourt helped British Columbia earn its reputation as one of the most liveable, accessible and inclusive places in the world. His focus on conservation and sustainable development – and his resolve to contribute to the transformation of cities and communities has played a significant role in promoting quality of life for those in Canada and abroad.

After stepping down from politics, he was appointed by the Prime Minister to serve as a member of the National Round Table on the Environment and Economy, where he served on the Executive Committee and Chaired the Urban Sustainability Program. He was a federally appointed B.C. Treaty Commissioner and was Chair of the Prime Minister’s Advisory Committee for Cities and Communities.

Mike Harcourt is Chair of University of British Columbia’s Regional Sustainability Council for sustainability initiatives. In addition to acting as Chairman of Quality Urban Energy Systems for Tomorrow (QUEST), he chairs the Canadian Electricity Association’s Sustainable Electricity Program Advisory Panel. He is the lead faculty in United Way’s Public Policy Institute.

Mark Dudzinski

MDudzinskiMr. Dudzinski has a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University and Master of Business Administration from Harvard University. He spent more than 20 years at General Electric Company, where his primary areas of responsibility were in marketing. This included new product and market development, new product introduction, product management, commercial operations, communications and strategy.

He was responsible for marketing at GE Energy. GE Energy is one of the world’s leading suppliers of power generation and energy delivery technologies, with revenue of over $26 billion. Mr. Dudzinski retired from GE in Feb. 2013, and has since started two organizations. CMO-md LLC with its website cmo-md.com is dedicated to helping B2B Chief Marketing Officers be successful. Light the World Inc is a Non-Profit, Charitable Organization dedicated to bringing cost effective electricity to the 1.2 billion people who live without lighting when the sun goes down.

Mr. Dudzinski has been a frequent speaker on technology changes and its impact on future product evolution in addition to marketing topics. Copies of the following public presentations are available for download on CMO-md.com: “The Economics of Green Power”, “Energy Industry 2020”, “Generation Trends”, “Innovation”, “The Future Electric Utility”, “Marketing in Developing Countries” and “Strategy”.

Carol M. Browner

CBrownerCarol M. Browner is a Distinguished Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress and Senior Counselor at Albright Stonebridge Group. Ms. Browner also serves as Chair of the Board of the League of Conservation Voters, on the Board of Directors for Bunge Limited, the Global Oceans Commission, and on Opower’s Advisory Board.

Ms. Browner most recently served as Assistant to President Obama and director of the White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy, where she oversaw the coordination of environmental, energy, climate, transport, and related policy across the federal government. During her tenure, the White House secured the largest investment ever in clean energy and established the national car policy that included both new automobile fuel efficiency standards and first ever greenhouse gas reductions. Previously, Ms. Browner was a founding principal of The Albright Group LLC from 2001 to 2008.

From 1993 through 2001, Ms. Browner served as the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. As administrator, she adopted the most stringent air pollution standards in US history; set for the first time, a fine particle clean air standard; and spearheaded the reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act as well as the Food Quality Protection Act. She was known for working with both environmentalists and industry to set scientific-based public health protections while providing businesses important flexibilities in how to meet those standards. She worked across the agency to ensure a focus on protecting the most vulnerable, particularly children.

From 1991 through 1993, Ms. Browner served as Secretary of Environmental Regulation in Florida, where she launched the largest ecological restoration project ever attempted in the United States to restore the natural flow of water to the Everglades.

Ms. Browner serves on the Executive Committee of the Center for American Progress and was a founding board member of the organization from 2003-2008.

Ms. Browner earned her B.A. and a law degree from the University of Florida in Gainesville. She has one son and is married to former New York Congressman Tom Downey.

Mike Sherman

MikeShermanMike Sherman is a Managing Partner and founding team member of Chrysalix Energy Venture Capital. Chrysalix EVC actively invests in breakthrough sustainable innovations that address the world’s economic, energy, and environmental challenges.

Mike has over 15 years of experience in clean energy venture capital investing, marketing, finance and strategic business planning. His investment carrier has focused on game changing technologies capable of disrupting large global markets. Mike is a Director on the boards of General Fusion, GaN Systems, and Purfresh, and an observer on the boards of MineSense and Brammo. His exit track record includes the successful sale of Epyon Power to the ABB Group, at the time the largest electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure deal to date.

Prior to joining Chrysalix EVC, Mike worked in Corporate Business Alliances with Starbucks Coffee Company. In addition Mike is an active angel investor and a Partner in Vancouver Social Venture Partners, a charitable foundation that supports innovative non-profit charitable investing combined with active Partner mentoring.

Jacques Besnainou

BesnainouJacques Besnainou was President & Chief Executive Officer of  AREVA Inc. until March 2012. In this role, Jacques was responsible for managing and setting the direction for AREVA’s nuclear and renewable energy businesses in the United States and Canada (around 5,000 employees).  Jacques has more than 20 years of management and systems engineering experience in both France and the United States, including more than a decade with AREVA. He joined AREVA in 2001 as Executive Vice President in charge of used fuel management operations in the United States. In 2005, he became the AREVA Group’s Senior Executive Vice President for the Global Used Fuel Business Group and member of the AREVA Nuclear Executive Committee.

Prior to joining AREVA, Jacques served as an advisor to the French Ministry of Industry for civilian nuclear affairs from 1992 to 1993. In 1993, he joined the Ecobilan Group, an environmental consulting firm specializing in life cycle assessments, eventually becoming its CEO and negotiating its sale to PricewaterhouseCoopers in 2000.

Mr. Besnainou holds Master of Science degrees in Mathematics, Engineering and Public Policy from Ecole Polytechnique and Ecole des Mines – France’s leading engineering schools.

Dr. Fred Buckman

Buckman, Fred_0002Fred Buckman is a senior executive with experience in electric and gas utility operation and management, engineering and construction management, project development and nuclear plant design, operation, safety assessment and operation.  He has served as the Chief Executive and Chief Nuclear Officer of Consumers Power, Chief Executive at PacifiCorp, President of the Power Group for Engineering and Construction leader Shaw Group, Managing Partner, Utilities, for Brookfield Asset Management, and is currently Chairman and CEO of Powerlink Transmission Company.

Fred has a PhD in Nuclear Engineering from MIT and serves as an Adjunct Professor with the University of Michigan Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science Department.  He participates from time to time in design reviews, lectures on industry topics and provides guidance regarding the nuclear and utility industries.


Sustainable Development Technology Canada

SDTC Description

Chrysalix SET Ventures

Chrysalix SET description

Business Development Bank of Canada

BDC Description


Growthworks description

Cenovus Environmental Opportunity Fund

Cenovus Environmental Opportunity Fund Ltd. (CEOF Ltd.) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cenovus Energy Inc. Through CEOF Ltd., Cenovus Energy invests in early-stage companies that are developing technologies that could improve the environmental and financial performance of our operations or that are developing innovations that may fundamentally change the energy industry.

Braemar Energy Ventures

Braemar Energy Ventures description

Bezos Expeditions

Bezos Expeditions is the personal investment company of Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of Amazon.com.

Chrysalix Energy Venture Capital

Chrysalix Energy Venture Capital description

Dr. Michel Laberge, Founder and Chief Scientist

m-labergeDr. Michel Laberge is a physicist with widespread practical experience in plasma physics and modern plasma diagnostic techniques. He has extensive knowledge of the latest technologies related to electronics, computers, materials, lithography, optics and fabrication, and is experienced at designing and constructing test apparatuses to evaluate technical concepts.

Prior to establishing General Fusion, Michel spent nine years at Creo Products in Vancouver as a senior physicist and principal engineer. His roles included inventor, designer, and scientific project leader on projects that resulted in more than $1 billion worth of product sales.

Michel holds a B.Sc. and M.Sc. in physics from Laval University. In 1990, he earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of British Columbia, and in 1991 completed a post doc at L’ecole Polytechnique in Paris. In 1992, he completed another post doc at the National Research Council in Ottawa. He has published numerous scientific papers.

Rick Wills, Chairman

Rick Wills joined the board of General Fusion in 2012.  Mr. Wills enjoyed a 30-year career with Tektronix, Inc., the last eight years of which he served as Chairman, President and CEO.  With Tektronix, Mr. Wills served in a number of key international roles, including Worldwide Director of Marketing for the Measurement Business Division, President of European Operations, and President of the Americas Operations before taking on the role of President and CEO.  Prior to joining Tektronix, Mr. Wills spent six years in the U.S. Air Force in various assignments in the United States and Europe. Mr. Wills holds a degree in Computer Systems from Linfield College and an M.B.A. from the University of Oregon.

Klaas de Boer

Klaas de Boer is Managing Partner of The Entrepreneurs Fund.  He has more than 10 years of venture experience, starting when he created and led a corporate venturing team at Vanenburg Group whose investments included WebEx. Prior to this, he spent time as a consultant with McKinsey and Company in both Amsterdam and St Petersburg. Behind Klaas’ achievements are an MSc in Physics and an Insead MBA.


General Fusion Inc.
108–3680 Bonneville Place
Burnaby, BC V3N 4T5

Phone: 604.439.3003

E-mail: info@generalfusion.com

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